Academic staff

HomeAcademic staffDr Tariq Sajjad
Dr Tariq Sajjad

Dr Tariq Sajjad

sajjadt@lsbu.ac.uk

Electrical and Electronic Engineering

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6932-8686

  • 1430
    total views of outputs
  • 1576
    total downloads of outputs
  • 75
    views of outputs this month
  • 50
    downloads of outputs this month

I am a Senior Lecturer in Energy Engineering and Materials Devices in the School of Engineering. Prior to joining LSBU in 2019, I worked at Organic Semiconductor Centre, University of St Andrews, UK. I received my MSc in Electrical and Electronic Engineering and PhD in Photonics from the Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, UK.

I am a member of EPSRC peer Review College, topic editor of “Coatings”, Associate Editor of “Solar Energy” within “Frontier in Energy Research” and the winner of "Emerging Investigator" (Journal of Material Chemistry A, 2020).

My current research focuses on optoelectronic applications of semiconductors, including the development of solar cells, LEDs, and Sensors and their application in Agritech, Optical Data Communications and Medicine. I work closely with the UK industries and have several joint collaborative projects with them. Two collaborative projects, "Development of highly efficient LEDs" and "Hydrogen production using 2D materials", working with Edinburgh Instruments Ltd, St Andrews and Nano2D (LSBU). A collaborative project, "Development of downshifting nanocrystals for increased crop yields", with Lambda Energy Ltd and Nano2D (LSBU). A collaborative project "Wearable Solar Cells", working with Loughborough and Surrey.

Current research activities in my group are:

- Photophysics of semiconductor Materials

- Wearable Electronics

- Organic Solar cells and Light-emitting devices (LEDs)

- Perovskite Solar Cells and LEDs

- Sensors

- Photocatalysis for green hydrogen production

- Multifunctional devices

- Visible Light data Communications

- Photodynamic Therapy

- Agritech

Courses taught

Electrical Power Engineering - BEng (Hons)

Electrical Power Engineering 2022/23

Electrical and Electronic Engineering - MSc

Rail and Rail Systems Engineer Apprenticeship (Electrical)

Postgraduate Research Supervision
Current
Mr Kiem Giap NguyenContinuous hydrothermal flow synthesis of biomass derived carbon quantum dots PhD
Mr Rajapaksha Mudiyanselage Himal Widooshak MuwanwellaDoctoral Research ProjectPhD
Miss Falak NazThermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) based hyperflourescence OLEDsPhD
PhD

University of Surrey, UK

2008
2012
MSc in Nanotechnology and nanoelectronic devices

University of Surrey, UK

2007
2008
MSc in Electronics

Quaid-i-Azam University, Pakistan

2004
2006
PGCHE

Falmouth University, UK

2020
2021
Senior Research Fellow
University of St Andrew

Research in the area of Optoelectronics and Photonics

2019
2019
Education
Project Manager of Advanced Functional Materials Research Centre (AFMRC)
University of St Andrews

I (with Dr Miller) developed and administered a £5.3 M facility for fabrication, structural and functional characterisation of nanomaterials, and successfully managed and run the facility for academics and industrial users from 2013 to 2019.

2013
2019
Education
Coordinator of Organic Semiconductor Centre (OSC)
University of St Andrews

- Dealing with PhD applications and consultancy requests

- Presenting the centre research at meetings and conferences

- Closely working with PhDs and other research staff, teaching them new tools and providing them with training for the successful completion of the projects.

2012
2019
Education
Research Fellow
University of St Andrews

Mainly researching to understand the physics of materials and devices, including solar cells and light-emitting devices with the aim of improving them.

2012
2019
Education
FunderYear wonProjectRole
Edinburgh Instruments Ltd2020Development of TADF emitters for next generation OLEDsPrincipal Investigator

Editorial/Advisory Board Member
Topic Editor
2021
Frontier in Energy Research

Associate editor
2022
University of St Andrews
Visiting researcher

- Solar Cells

- LEDs

- Photophysics of semiconductor materials and devices

December 2019
The Islamia University of Bahawalpur (IUB)
External examiner

PhD examiner

- Renewable energy

- Optoelectronic

- Photonics

International Islamic University Islamabad (IIUI)
External examiner

PhD examiner

- Renewable energy

- Optoelectronic

- Photonics

Government College University Faisalabad (GCUF)
External examiner

PhD examiner

- Renewable energy

- Optoelectronic

- Photonics

December 2019
University of St Andrews

PhD Co-supervisor - External

September 2021
Prizes, awards, and accolades

Emerging Investigator (Aug 2020)

Royal Society of Chemistry

I have been selected as one of the emerging investigators in recognition of my contribution to the field of energy.


Filter publications

A Multifaceted Ferrocene Interlayer for Highly Stable and Efficient Lithium Doped Spiro‐OMeTAD‐based Perovskite Solar Cells
Webb, T., Liu, X., Westbrook, R.J.E., Kern, S., Sajjad, M.T., Jenatsch, S., Jayawardena, K. D. G. Imalka, Perera, W. H.K., Marko, I.P., Sathasivam, S., Li, B., Yavari, M., Scurr, D.J., Alexander, M.R., Macdonald, T.J., Haque, S.A., Sweeney, S.J. and Zhang, W. (2022). A Multifaceted Ferrocene Interlayer for Highly Stable and Efficient Lithium Doped Spiro‐OMeTAD‐based Perovskite Solar Cells. Advanced Energy Materials. https://doi.org/10.1002/aenm.202200666

Recent Progress in Micro‐LED‐Based Display Technologies
Sajjad, T., Sajjad, M.T., Johar, M.A., Hernández‐Gutiérrez, C.A., Usman, M. and Łepkowski, S. P. (2022). Recent Progress in Micro‐LED‐Based Display Technologies. Laser & Photonics Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1002/lpor.202100427

Development of Quantum Dot (QD) Based Color Converters for Multicolor Display.
Sajjad, T., Bansal, A.K., Antolini, F., Preis, E., Stroea, L., Toffanin, S., Muccini, M., Ortolani, L., Migliori, A., Allard, S., Scherf, U. and Samuel, I. (2021). Development of Quantum Dot (QD) Based Color Converters for Multicolor Display. Nanomaterials. 11 (5). https://doi.org/nano11051089

Direct Growth of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes onto Transparent Conductive Oxide Glass for Enhanced Charge Extraction in Perovskite Solar Cells
Ferguson, V., Li, B., Tas, M. O., Webb, T., Sajjad, M. T., Thomson, S. A. J., Wu, Z., Shen, Y., Shao, G., Anguita, J. V., Silva, S. R. P. and Zhang, W. (2020). Direct Growth of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes onto Transparent Conductive Oxide Glass for Enhanced Charge Extraction in Perovskite Solar Cells. Advanced Materials Interfaces. 5, p. 2001121. https://doi.org/10.1002/admi.202001121

Enhancing Exciton Diffusion Length Provides New Opportunities for Organic Photovoltaics
Sajjad, M. T., Ruseckas, A. and Samuel, D.W. (2020). Enhancing Exciton Diffusion Length Provides New Opportunities for Organic Photovoltaics. Matter. 3 (5), pp. 341-354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matt.2020.06.028

Reduced Bilateral Recombination by Functional Molecular Interface Engineering for Efficient Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells
Sajjad, M. T., Li, B., Xiang, Y., Imalka Jayawardena, K.D.G, Luo, D., Wang, Z., Yang, X., Watts, J.F., Hinder, S., Webb, T., Luo, H., Marko, I., Li, H., Thomsen, S.J.A, Zhu, R., Shao, G., Sweeney, S.J., Silva, S.R.P and Zhang, W. (2020). Reduced Bilateral Recombination by Functional Molecular Interface Engineering for Efficient Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells. Nano Energy. 78, p. 105249. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoen.2020.105249

Long-range Exciton Diffusion in Non-Fullerene Acceptors and Coarse Bulk Heterojunctions Enable Highly Efficient Organic Photovoltaics
Sajjad, T. M. (2020). Long-range Exciton Diffusion in Non-Fullerene Acceptors and Coarse Bulk Heterojunctions Enable Highly Efficient Organic Photovoltaics. Journal of Materials Chemistry A. https://doi.org/10.1039/D0TA06017H

Interface limited hole extraction from methylammonium lead iodide films
Blaszczyk, Oskar, Jagadamma, Lethy Krishnan, Ruseckas, Arvydas, Sajjad, T, Zhang, Yiwei and Samuel, Ifor DW (2019). Interface limited hole extraction from methylammonium lead iodide films. Materials Horizons. https://doi.org/https://www.doi.org/10.1039/c9mh01517e

Efficient indoor pin hybrid perovskite solar cells using low temperature solution processed NiO as hole extraction layers
Jagadamma, Lethy Krishnan, Blaszczyk, Oskar, Sajjad, T., Ruseckas, Arvydas and Samuel, Ifor DW (2019). Efficient indoor pin hybrid perovskite solar cells using low temperature solution processed NiO as hole extraction layers. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. 201, pp. 110071-110071. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2019.110071

Highly efficient fullerene and non-fullerene based ternary organic solar cells incorporating a new tetrathiocin-cored semiconductor
Jagadamma, LK, Taylor, RGD, Kanibolotsky, AL, Sajjad, T, Wright, IA, Horton, PN, Coles, SJ, Samuel, IDW and Skabara, Peter J (2019). Highly efficient fullerene and non-fullerene based ternary organic solar cells incorporating a new tetrathiocin-cored semiconductor. Sustainable Energy & Fuels. 3 (8), pp. 2087-2099. https://doi.org/10.1039/C9SE00343F

Tailoring exciton diffusion and domain size in photovoltaic small molecules by annealing
Sajjad, T., Zhang, Y., Geraghty, P.B., Mitchell, V.D., Ruseckas, A., Blaszczyk, O., Jones, D.J. and Samuel, I.D.W. (2019). Tailoring exciton diffusion and domain size in photovoltaic small molecules by annealing. Journal of Materials Chemistry C. 7 (26), pp. 7922-7928. https://doi.org/10.1039/C9TC00951E

Large crystalline domains and enhanced exciton diffusion length enable efficient organic solar cells
Zhang, Y., Sajjad, T., Blaszczyk, O., Parnell, A.J, Ruseckas, A., Serrano, L.A, Cooke, G. and Samuel, I.D.W (2019). Large crystalline domains and enhanced exciton diffusion length enable efficient organic solar cells. Chemistry of Materials. 31 (17), pp. 6548-6557. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemmater.8b05293

Enhanced exciton harvesting in a planar heterojunction organic photovoltaic device by solvent vapor annealing
Zhang, Yiwei, Sajjad, T, Blaszczyk, Oskar, Ruseckas, Arvydas, Serrano, Luis A, Cooke, Graeme and Samuel, Ifor DW (2019). Enhanced exciton harvesting in a planar heterojunction organic photovoltaic device by solvent vapor annealing. Organic Electronics. 70, pp. 162-166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orgel.2019.03.014

Tuning the Exciton Diffusion Coefficient of Polyfluorene Based Semiconducting Polymers
Sajjad, T., Ward, A. J, Ruseckas, A., Bansal, A. K, Allard, S., Scherf, U. and Samuel, I. DW (2018). Tuning the Exciton Diffusion Coefficient of Polyfluorene Based Semiconducting Polymers. physica status solidi (RRL)–Rapid Research Letters. 13 (3), pp. 1800500-1800500. https://doi.org/https://www.doi.org/10.1002/pssr.201800500

Triptycene as a Supramolecular Additive in PTB7: PCBM blends and its Influence on Photovoltaic Properties
Krishnan Jagadamma, Lethy, McCarron, Liam J, Wiles, Alan A, Savikhin, Victoria, Sajjad, T., Yazdani, Mahdieh, Rotello, Vincent M, Toney, Michael F, Cooke, Graeme and Samuel, Ifor DW (2018). Triptycene as a Supramolecular Additive in PTB7: PCBM blends and its Influence on Photovoltaic Properties. ACS applied materials & interfaces. 10 (29), pp. 24665-24678. https://doi.org/https://www.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b03114

Role of lattice distortion and A site cation in the phase transitions of methylammonium lead halide perovskites
Harwell, Jonathon R, Payne, Julia L, Sajjad, T., Heutz, Frank JL, Dawson, Daniel M, Whitfield, Pamela S, Irvine, John TS, Samuel, Ifor DW and Carpenter, Michael A (2018). Role of lattice distortion and A site cation in the phase transitions of methylammonium lead halide perovskites. Physical Review Materials. 2 (6), pp. 065404-065404. https://doi.org/https://www.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.2.065404

Engineered exciton diffusion length enhances device efficiency in small molecule photovoltaics
Sajjad, T, Blaszczyk, Oskar, Jagadamma, Lethy Krishnan, Roland, Thomas J, Chowdhury, Mithun, Ruseckas, Arvydas and Samuel, Ifor DW (2018). Engineered exciton diffusion length enhances device efficiency in small molecule photovoltaics. Journal of Materials Chemistry A. 6 (20), pp. 9445-9450. https://doi.org/10.1039/C8TA01226A

pH-Induced transformation of ligated Au 25 to brighter Au 23 nanoclusters
Waszkielewicz, Magdalena, Olesiak-Banska, Joanna, Comby-Zerbino, Clothilde, Bertorelle, Franck, Dagany, Xavier, Bansal, Ashu K, Sajjad, T, Samuel, Ifor DW, Sanader, Zeljka and Rozycka, Miroslawa (2018). pH-Induced transformation of ligated Au 25 to brighter Au 23 nanoclusters. Nanoscale. 10 (24), pp. 11335-11341. https://doi.org/10.1039/C8NR00660A

CuSCN Nanowires as Electrodes for p-Type Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells: Charge Transfer Dynamics and Alumina Passivation
Sajjad, Muhammad T, Sajjad, T, Park, Jinhyung, Gaboriau, Dorian, Harwell, Jonathon R, Odobel, Fabrice, Reiss, Peter, Samuel, Ifor DW and Aldakov, Dmitry (2018). CuSCN Nanowires as Electrodes for p-Type Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells: Charge Transfer Dynamics and Alumina Passivation. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 122 (9), pp. 5161-5170. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b12619

Improved efficiency of PbS quantum dot sensitized NiO photocathodes with naphthalene diimide electron acceptor bound to the surface of the nanocrystals
Raissi, Mahfoudh, Sajjad, T, Farré, Yoann, Roland, Thomas J, Ruseckas, Arvydas, Samuel, Ifor DW and Odobel, Fabrice (2018). Improved efficiency of PbS quantum dot sensitized NiO photocathodes with naphthalene diimide electron acceptor bound to the surface of the nanocrystals. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. 181, pp. 71-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2017.12.029

Novel 4, 8-benzobisthiazole copolymers and their field-effect transistor and photovoltaic applications
Conboy, G., Taylor, R.G.D., Findlay, N.J., Kanibolotsky, A.L., Inigo, A.R., Ghosh, S.S., Ebenhoch, B., Jagadamma, L.K., Thalluri, G.K.V.V. and Sajjad, T. (2017). Novel 4, 8-benzobisthiazole copolymers and their field-effect transistor and photovoltaic applications. Journal of Materials Chemistry C. 5 (45), pp. 11927-11936. https://doi.org/10.1039/C7TC03959J

Size dependence of efficiency of PbS quantum dots in NiO-based dye sensitised solar cells and mechanistic charge transfer investigation
Raissi, Mahfoudh, Sajjad, T., Pellegrin, Yann, Roland, Thomas Jean, Jobic, Stéphane, Boujtita, Mohammed, Ruseckas, Arvydas, Samuel, Ifor DW and Odobel, Fabrice (2017). Size dependence of efficiency of PbS quantum dots in NiO-based dye sensitised solar cells and mechanistic charge transfer investigation. Nanoscale. 9 (40), pp. 15566-15575. https://doi.org/https://www.doi.org/10.1039/C7NR03698A

Polymer colour converter with very high modulation bandwidth for visible light communications
Vithanage, DA, Kanibolotsky, AL, Rajbhandari, S, Manousiadis, PP, Sajjad, T., Chun, H, Faulkner, GE, O'Brien, DC, Skabara, PJ, Samuel, IDW and Turnbull, GA (2017). Polymer colour converter with very high modulation bandwidth for visible light communications. Journal of Materials Chemistry C. 5 (35), pp. 8916-8920. https://doi.org/10.1039/c7tc03787b

Narrow-band anisotropic electronic structure of ReS2
Biswas, D, Ganose, Alex M, Yano, R, Riley, JM, Bawden, L, Clark, OJ, Feng, J, Collins-Mcintyre, L, Sajjad, T and Meevasana, W (2017). Narrow-band anisotropic electronic structure of ReS2. Physical Review B. 96 (8). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.96.085205

Correlating photovoltaic properties of PTB7-Th:PC71BM blend to photophysics and microstructure as a function of thermal annealing
Jagadamma, Lethy Krishnan, Sajjad, Muhammad T, Savikhin, Victoria, Toney, Michael F, Samuel, Ifor DW and Sajjad, T (2017). Correlating photovoltaic properties of PTB7-Th:PC71BM blend to photophysics and microstructure as a function of thermal annealing. Journal of Materials Chemistry A. 5 (28), pp. 14646-14657. https://doi.org/10.1039/C7TA03144K

Tuning crystalline ordering by annealing and additives to study its effect on exciton diffusion in a polyalkylthiophene copolymer
Chowdhury, Mithun, Sajjad, T., Savikhin, Victoria, Hergué, Noémie, Sutija, Karina B, Oosterhout, Stefan D, Toney, Michael F, Dubois, Philippe, Ruseckas, Arvydas and Samuel, Ifor DW (2017). Tuning crystalline ordering by annealing and additives to study its effect on exciton diffusion in a polyalkylthiophene copolymer. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 19 (19), pp. 12441-12451. https://doi.org/https://www.doi.org/10.1039/C7CP00877E

Exciton diffusion length and charge extraction yield in organic bilayer solar cells
Siegmund, B., Sajjad, T, Widmer, J., Ray, D., Koerner, C., Riede, M., Leo, K., Samuel, I.D.W. and Vandewal, K. (2017). Exciton diffusion length and charge extraction yield in organic bilayer solar cells. Advanced Materials. 29 (12), pp. 1604424-1604424. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201604424

A saturated red color converter for visible light communication using a blend of star-shaped organic semiconductors
Sajjad, T, Manousiadis, PP, Orofino, Clara, Kanibolotsky, AL, Findlay, Neil J, Rajbhandari, Sujan, Vithanage, DA, Chun, Hyunchae, Faulkner, GE and O’Brien, DC (2017). A saturated red color converter for visible light communication using a blend of star-shaped organic semiconductors. Applied Physics Letters. 110 (1), pp. 013302-013302. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4971823

Controlling the emission efficiency of blue-green iridium (iii) phosphorescent emitters and applications in solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes
Sajjad, T, Sharma, Nidhi, Pal, Amlan K, Hasan, Kamrul, Xie, Guohua, Kölln, Lisa S, Hanan, Garry S, Samuel, Ifor DW and Zysman-Colman, Eli (2016). Controlling the emission efficiency of blue-green iridium (iii) phosphorescent emitters and applications in solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes. Journal of Materials Chemistry C. 4 (38), pp. 8939-8946. https://doi.org/10.1039/C6TC02909D

BODIPY star-shaped molecules as solid state colour converters for visible light communications
Vithanage, DA, Manousiadis, PP, Sajjad, T, Rajbhandari, Sujan, Chun, Hyunchae, Orofino, Clara, Cortizo-Lacalle, Diego, Kanibolotsky, AL, Faulkner, Grahame and Findlay, NJ (2016). BODIPY star-shaped molecules as solid state colour converters for visible light communications. Applied Physics Letters. 109 (1), pp. 013302-013302. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4953789

Efficient eco-friendly inverted quantum dot sensitized solar cells
Park, J., Sajjad, T, Jouneau, P-H., Ruseckas, A., Faure-Vincent, J., Samuel, I.D.W., Reiss, P. and Aldakov, D. (2016). Efficient eco-friendly inverted quantum dot sensitized solar cells. Journal of Materials Chemistry A. 4 (3), pp. 827-837. https://doi.org/10.1039/C5TA06769C

Mercaptophosphonic acids as efficient linkers in quantum dot sensitized solar cells
Aldakov, D, Sajjad, T, Ivanova, V, Bansal, AK, Park, J, Reiss, P and Samuel, IDW (2015). Mercaptophosphonic acids as efficient linkers in quantum dot sensitized solar cells. Journal of Materials Chemistry A. 3 (37), pp. 19050-19060. https://doi.org/10.1039/C5TA04021C

Controlling exciton diffusion and fullerene distribution in photovoltaic blends by side chain modification
Sajjad, T, Ward, Alexander J, Kästner, Christian, Ruseckas, Arvydas, Hoppe, Harald and Samuel, Ifor DW (2015). Controlling exciton diffusion and fullerene distribution in photovoltaic blends by side chain modification. The journal of physical chemistry letters. 6 (15), pp. 3054-3060. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b01059

In situ formation and photo patterning of emissive quantum dots in small organic molecules
Bansal, Ashu K, Sajjad, T, Antolini, Francesco, Stroea, Lenuta, Gečys, Paulius, Raciukaitis, Gediminas, André, Pascal, Hirzer, Andreas, Schmidt, Volker and Ortolani, Luca (2018). In situ formation and photo patterning of emissive quantum dots in small organic molecules. Nanoscale. 7 (25), pp. 11163-11172. https://doi.org/10.1039/C5NR01401H

Novel fast color-converter for visible light communication using a blend of conjugated polymers
Sajjad, T, Manousiadis, Pavlos P, Chun, Hyunchae, Vithanage, Dimali A, Rajbhandari, Sujan, Kanibolotsky, Alexander L, Faulkner, Grahame, O’Brien, Dominic, Skabara, Peter J and Samuel, Ifor DW (2015). Novel fast color-converter for visible light communication using a blend of conjugated polymers. Acs Photonics. 2 (2), pp. 194-199. https://doi.org/10.1021/ph500451y

Synthesis and properties of novel star-shaped oligofluorene conjugated systems with BODIPY cores
Orofino-Pena, Clara, Cortizo-Lacalle, Diego, Cameron, Joseph, Sajjad, T., Manousiadis, Pavlos P, Findlay, Neil J, Kanibolotsky, Alexander L, Amarasinghe, Dimali, Skabara, Peter J and Tuttle, Tell (2014). Synthesis and properties of novel star-shaped oligofluorene conjugated systems with BODIPY cores. Beilstein journal of organic chemistry. 10, pp. 2704-2714. https://doi.org/https://www.doi.org/10.3762/bjoc.10.285

Fluorescent Red-Emitting BODIPY Oligofluorene Star-Shaped Molecules as a Color Converter Material for Visible Light Communications
Sajjad, T, Manousiadis, Pavlos P, Orofino, Clara, Cortizo-Lacalle, Diego, Kanibolotsky, Alexander L, Rajbhandari, Sujan, Amarasinghe, Dimali, Chun, Hyunchae, Faulkner, Grahame and O’Brien, Dominic C (2015). Fluorescent Red-Emitting BODIPY Oligofluorene Star-Shaped Molecules as a Color Converter Material for Visible Light Communications. Advanced optical materials. 3 (4), pp. 536-540. https://doi.org/10.1002/adom.201400424

Photophysical and structural characterisation of in situ formed quantum dots
Bansal, AK, Antolini, F, Sajjad, T, Stroea, L, Mazzaro, R, Ramkumar, SG, Kass, K-J, Allard, S, Scherf, U and Samuel, IDW (2014). Photophysical and structural characterisation of in situ formed quantum dots. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 16 (20), pp. 9556-9564. https://doi.org/https://www.doi.org/10.1039/C4CP00727A

Measurement of a reaction-diffusion crossover in exciton-exciton recombination inside carbon nanotubes using femtosecond optical absorption
Allam, J, Sajjad, T, Sutton, R, Litvinenko, K, Wang, Zilong, Siddique, S, Yang, Q-H, Loh, Wei H and Brown, T (2013). Measurement of a reaction-diffusion crossover in exciton-exciton recombination inside carbon nanotubes using femtosecond optical absorption. Physical review letters. 111 (19), pp. 197401-197401. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.197401